11 Things to Know About Expat Taxes in Thailand 

11 Things to Know About Expat Taxes in Thailand 
Updated on May 2, 2024

Thailand has long been known for its natural beauty and cultural diversity. It’s no wonder that over 40,000 US expats call Thailand their home. But while you savor the food and tropical climate, you may find Thailand taxes for US expats challenging. 

Fortunately, we’re here to help. In this guide, we’re going to look at 11 important facts to know about foreign taxes in Thailand. 

Thailand at a Glance

  • Primary Tax Form for Residents: PND 90 (Personal Income Tax Return) 
  • Tax Year: January 1st to December 31st 
  • Tax Deadline: March 31st of the following year for e-filing and April 30th for paper filing 
  • Currency: Thai Baht (THB) 
  • Population: Approximately 69 million
  • Number of US Expats: Varies, but estimated to be around 10,000 
  • Capital City: Bangkok 
  • Primary Language: Thai 
  • Tax Treaty: Yes 
  • Totalization Agreement: No 
Self-Assessment Quiz

Are You Ready to Move Abroad?

Choose the answer to each question that best describes you or your current situation, and learn how ready you are to start a life abroad.

Email entry will be required to see your results.
Self-Assessment Quiz:
Are You Ready to Move Abroad?
Question 1/66

"*" indicates required fields

Cultural Engagement:*
You’re an adventurer!

You have an adventurous spirit but you may need to prepare a bit more to ensure a smooth transition abroad. Consider researching more about the cultural, legal, and financial aspects of living overseas. Check out our guide 25 Thing Every Expat Should Know

You’re on track!

You’re on the right track. You’ve started to think about what life abroad will entail. Keep building on your preparations to avoid any surprises once you’ve moved. Check out our guide 25 Thing Every Expat Should Know

You’re ready!

You’re ready to move abroad! You seem well-prepared and have done your homework! You’re ready to embrace the expat life with confidence. Check out our guide 25 Thing Every Expat Should Know

1. Tax Residency in Thailand 

Thailand’s residency requirements are determined by the Revenue Department, which is the Thai equivalent of the IRS. The Revenue Department groups people into two basic categories: residents and non-residents. 

To be a resident, you must live in Thailand for 180 days or more during a given tax year. Until you reach 180 days, you will be considered a non-resident. 

Knowing your status is essential, as it directly affects the taxes that apply to you. 

Pro Tip

Keep detailed records of your presence in and out of Thailand, as this can affect your tax residency status. This can include passport stamps, flight tickets, and accommodation receipts.

2. Thailand Taxes Foreign Income for Residents 

Yes, Thailand’s income tax does apply to foreign income. However, the rules differ for residents and non-residents. 

Previously, income earned outside Thailand and brought into the country within the same tax year was subject to Thai tax. However, from January 1, 2024, Thai tax residents will have a broader tax liability. All foreign-earned income brought into Thailand will be taxable, regardless of the earning period. 

This change signifies a shift from the earlier rule that exempted income brought into Thailand after 12 months of earning it. It’s prudent for expats to consult tax experts for tailored advice on this significant alteration in tax law. 

3. Non-Residents Must Pay Income Tax in Thailand 

The Revenue Department charges taxes for foreigners working in Thailand. Non-residents also pay income tax on any Thailand-source money they earn during their time in Thailand. (However, non-residents are exempt from paying taxes on foreign income.) 

Again, if you leave the country before the end of the tax year, you must file taxes on any income you generated during your visit. 

4. Thailand Tax Rates 

Thailand tax rates vary depending on your personal income. Rates are progressive and range from 0% for those who earn less than 150,000 baht to 35% for those who earn more than 5,000,001 baht. 

The currency used in Thailand is the baht, and its abbreviation is THB. The Thai personal income tax rates are shown here in baht. 

Income Tax Rates in Thailand (Tax Year 2023) 

Income Tax Rate 
Less than 150,000 THB 0% 
150,001–300,000 THB 5% 
300,001–500,000 THB 10% 
500,001–750,000 THB 15% 
750,001–1,000,000 THB 20% 
1,000,001–2,000,000 THB 25% 
2,000,001–5,000,000 THB 30% 
More than 5,000,000 THB 35% 

Unlike the United States, the tax brackets in Thailand are based exclusively on income. Thailand residents won’t have to worry about tax status (e.g., “single,” “married filing jointly,” etc.) when filing their returns. 

5. Tax Deadline in Thailand 

Thailand taxes for US expats are due on March 31. Residents must file annually using a Personal Income Tax (PIT) return. 

If you are an entertainer or receive income from advertising fees, you must pay taxes twice each year. You’ll file your PIT return on March 31 and a “mid-year” return on September 30. 

Every expat should know these 25 things about US expat taxes. Find out for yourself.
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • By entering your email, you agree to receive emails from Greenback. You may opt out at any time per our Privacy Policy.
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

6. Other Taxable Income in Thailand 

Income tax is the primary tax that impacts Americans working in Thailand. However, US citizens living in Thailand are also subject to other forms of tax. Here’s a quick overview of each. 

Capital Gains Tax 

This income is subject to personal income tax if you earn money by selling assets and securities. This most commonly applies to those who sell real estate properties. Taxpayers can deduct a standard allowance depending on the number of years of ownership. 

Unlike the United States, Thailand does not charge a capital gains tax on money earned from the sale of securities on the stock exchange of Thailand. So if you invest in the stock market, you won’t pay capital gains taxes on the securities you sell if the company is listed on the national exchange. 

Net Worth Tax 

While this law is rarely exercised, Thailand’s Revenue Department reserves the right to assess an additional tax if they believe your income has been underrepresented. 

Social Security Tax 

Like the United States, Thailand maintains a social security system. Employees contribute 5% on the first 15,000 THB they earn, and employers match this by paying an additional 5%. Thailand’s government adds an extra 2.5%. If you are self-employed, you must pay both portions (employee and employer) of your social security payments. 

Currently, there is no Thailand-US totalization agreement. As a result, some US expats pay for both social security systems during their time in Thailand. 

Inheritance Tax 

Thailand enacted the Inheritance Tax Act on February 1, 2016. Under this act, inheritance can be taxed only if the value exceeds 100 million THB per benefactor. In this case, the benefactor can be taxed at different rates depending on their relationship to the deceased.  

Descendants and parents are taxed at 5%, while all other benefactors are taxed at 10%. Inheritance taxes must be filed within 150 days after receiving the inheritance amount; otherwise, benefactors must pay a surcharge or penalty. 

Gift Tax 

In Thailand, gifts are subject to a flat tax of 5%. Some exemptions apply. For example, gifts as high as 20 million THB are exempt when received from a parent, child, or spouse. Gifts up to 10 million THB are exempt when given in a ceremony or on an occasion that corresponds to custom or tradition. 

Value-Added Tax (VAT) and Duties 

Certain items carry a 7% value-added tax (VAT). This tax is levied on various goods and services, though groceries, education, healthcare, and real estate are exempt. Certain legal documents (e.g., leases) are also subject to stamp duty. 

Pro Tip

As a foreigner living in Thailand, you might be eligible for VAT refunds on certain services and goods. Keep receipts and inquire about the refund process, which can sometimes be completed at the airport.

7. Deductions and Allowances in Thailand 

Thailand offers a range of tax deductions and allowances that can significantly reduce your taxable income. Common deductions include: 

  • Contributions to Social Security 
  • Life insurance premiums 
  • Contributions to retirement funds 
  • Mortgage interest on property loans 

Allowances are available for spouses, children, education, and disability. 

To learn more, see the “Deductions and Allowances” section on this page of the official Thai Revenue Department website. 

Confused about when you need to file? We can help.

When you live in the US, tax day is simple: April 15th! When you move abroad, it’s not so straightforward! Learn about all the expat deadlines and extensions you need to know to file.

  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • By entering your email, you agree to receive emails from Greenback. You may opt out at any time per our Privacy Policy.
  • Hidden
  • Hidden
  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

8. US Citizens Must Pay US Tax in Thailand 

Yes, you’ll need to file US taxes each year with the federal government. If you’re still considered a resident of a US state, you may also have to file state taxes as well. 

9. US-Thailand Tax Treaty 

The US and Thailand agreed to a tax treaty in 1996, which remains in effect. One purpose of this treaty is to remedy double taxation, which should relieve some of your expat taxes. The tax treaty provisions that cover items on your tax return should be appropriately applied. You may need to consult with a tax advisor to ensure that happens. 

10. No US-Thailand Totalization Agreement 

The US and Thailand do not currently have a totalization agreement in place. This means that Americans who live and work in Thailand may be required to contribute to both nations’ social security systems. 

11. How to Save on Your US Taxes While Living in Thailand 

Americans working in Thailand can save on the taxes they owe the US government. Here are the three most common strategies for lowering the amount of taxes you pay. 

Foreign Earned Income Exclusion (FEIE) 

If you earn income while living abroad, the IRS allows you to exclude this income from your income taxes up to a specific limit. For 2023, this limit is $120,000. 

To qualify, you must meet one of two criteria: 

To prove residency, you will need to have a residency card, visa, income tax statements, and other documentation. 

Foreign Tax Credit (FTC) 

The Foreign Tax Credit (FTC) is a dollar-for-dollar credit on any taxable income you’ve already paid tax on. This prevents you from being taxed twice and can lower your overall tax liability. 

To qualify, you must pay or owe taxes in Thailand. The taxes must be legal, and the FTC applies exclusively to income tax. 

Bear in mind that the FTC can apply only to Thai earnings that are subject to US tax. So, for example, if you use the FEIE to exclude a portion of your earnings, you cannot also use the FTC on those earnings. 

Foreign Housing Exclusion 

The Foreign Housing Exclusion allows US expats living in Thailand to exclude certain amounts that they use for household expenses. These expenses are generally restricted to expenses that uniquely occur due to living abroad, such as purchasing items to help you and your family adjust to a new climate. 

Get Help with Your Foreign Taxes in Thailand 

Greenback Expat Tax Services can help you make the most of your deductions and navigate the confusing tax situations of expats living abroad. File with us, and our tax experts will help you save money while fully complying with Thailand’s tax requirements. 

Contact the Greenback team, and one of our Customer Champions will gladly help. If you need concrete advice on your tax situation, you can also click below to get a consultation with one of our expat tax experts. 

Knowledge is power. Get personalized advice from one of our expat expert accountants.

Whether you need tax advice to prepare for a move abroad, to buy property or even retire, Greenback can help. Consults upfront can help avoid costly mistakes and stress later.

Book a Consult